Day 1 :
Statens Serum Institut, Denmark
Time : 09:00-09:40
Gabriel Pedersen is an immunologist and head of section for the Adjuvant Research group at the Center for Vaccine research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen. Gabriel did his PhD at University of Bergen, Norway, focusing on pandemic influenza vaccines, before moving to Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, to do a postdoc in B cell biology, with particular focus on innate-like B cells. Since 2016, he has focused on adjuvant research on SSIs novel pipeline of adjuvants, particularly focusing on liposome and emulsion-based adjuvant and delivery systems.
Novel vaccine strategies include the so-called subunit vaccines, which encompass only the part of the pathogen to which immune recognition results in protection. The high purity of these vaccines makes adverse events less likely, but it also makes the vaccines less immunogenic and therefore potentially less effective. Vaccine adjuvants that increase and modulate the immunogenicity of the vaccine are therefore added to solve this problem. Besides aluminum salts, which have been used in vaccines for 90 years, a number of novel vaccine adjuvants include delivery systems like liposomes and emulsions have been included in licensed vaccines over the last 30 years. However trial-and-error has been the explorative approach of choice, for the design of novel vaccine adjuvants due to major gaps in the knowledge about immunological activation processes. Increasing insight into immunological mechanisms and how to manipulate them has replaced empirical with rational design of adjuvants, leading to vaccine adjuvants with increased and customized immunogenicity profiles without compromising vaccine safety. I will present an overview of where vaccine adjuvant research is today. I will furthermore show an example where the newest knowledge in innate immunology enables the rational design of a novel CTL inducing vaccine adjuvant.
Instituto de Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla, Spain
Time : 09:40-10:20
Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez has completed her PhD in Immunology, 1993 has her expertise in listeriosis and Listeria based vaccines and nano-vaccines for biomedical purposes. Her group has prepared different vaccines for listeriosis, either systemic listeriosis or neonatal listeriosis, using different vectors such as dendritic cells or nanoparticles. Moreover, they have also prepared Listeria-based nano-vaccines as therapeutic tools for solid tumours. She has built this vaccine expertise after more than 27 years of experience in research, evaluation and teaching in hospital, basic research and academic institutions in Spain and USA. She is also moving recently to consultancy companies to put new vaccines into the market.
Dendritic cell-based (DC-based) vaccines are promising immunotherapies for cancer. However, several factors, such as the lack of efficient targeted delivery and the sources and types of DCs, have limited the efficacy of DCs and their clinical potential. We propose an alternative nanotechnology-based vaccine platform with antibacterial prophylactic abilities that uses gold glyconanoparticles coupled to listeriolysin O 91–99 peptide (GNP-LLO91–99), which acts as a novel adjuvant for cancer therapy as well as therapeutic vaccine for cutaneous melanoma acting as a novel immunotherapy. GNP-LLO91–99 exhibited dual anti-tumour activities, namely, the inhibition of tumour migration and growth and adjuvant activity for recruiting and activating DCs, including those from melanoma patients. GNP-LLO91–99 nanoparticles caused tumour apoptosis and induced antigen and melanomaspecific cytotoxic Th1 responses (P≤0.5). They also cause tumour complete remission and survival improvement. GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines presented superior tumour rejection and survival benefits, when combined with anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibitors, predicting an improvement of these immunotherapies action. Studies with monocyte-derived DCs of patients with stage IIIB melanoma confirmed the ability of GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines to complement the action of check point inhibitors, not only reducing cell-death markers expression on DCs, but also potentiating DC antigen-presentation and production of Th1-Th12 cytokines. We propose that GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines function as immune stimulators and immune effectors and serve as safe cancer therapies, alone or in combination with other immunotherapies.
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, USA
Keynote: Overcoming antibiotic resistance: Inhibition of ld-transpeptidation in multi-drug resistant pathogens
Time : 10:20-11:00
Mario A Bianchet has completed his PhD from National University of La Plata, Argentina and performed his Postdoctoral training at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine where he joined as Assistant Professor in the Department of Neurology in 2011. He is a Structural Enzymologist and has participated in several seminal structural and mechanistic studies of macromolecular systems of biomedical interest including cell-wall biosynthesis: LD-transpeptidases and their complexes with carbapenems. In addition, he has valuable contributions to diverse fields, including bioenergetics: F1-ATPase, xenobiotic-response: NADPH:Quinone oxidoreductases, DNA-repair: Uracyl-glycosylase/inhibitors, carbohydrate-recognition: animal lectins, resulting in 70 publications in reputed journals.
Multidrug-resistant microorganisms produce infections that are hard to treat or may even be untreatable with conventional antimicrobials. Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb), Clostridae difficile (Cd), and ESKAPE pathogens are capable of developing resistance to not only clinical antibiotics, but to the last resort (such as carbapenems) as well. The development of novel treatment options to replace antibiotics that lost their effectiveness and new antibiotic targets to circumvent target-specific resistance, which has emerged against every antibiotic class, are high priorities.The development of the necessary new antibiotics through trial-and-error is a costly and time-consuming proposition. Structure-based drug design accelerates discovery by linking structural information and computational techniques. The targeting late stages of bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis remains a sound strategy. The peptidoglycan of Mtb, M. abscessus, and Cd during stationary growth is synthetized by LD-transpeptidases (LDTs), different enzyme than DD-transpeptidases (Penicillin-binding proteins) the primary target of β-lactams. This difference contributes to these pathogens resistance to β-lactams. We are investigating the molecular structures of Mtb LDTs and its complexes with carbapenems. Structural evidence from these studies suggests that the catalytic site flexibility dynamically accommodates ligands larger that than the geometric volume of the site observed in the crystallographic structure. Thus, inhibitors binding to LDTs can involve transient active-site conformations unobserved in the time-averaged crystallographic structure. We are developing methods to seek LDTs inhibitors targeting accessible dynamic states of these enzymes in drug-resistant pathogens to obtain antibiotic leads. In this talk, I’ll present preliminary results of our work targeting essential Mtb transpeptidase, LdtMt2.
Networking & Refreshment Break: 11:00-11:20 @ Lobby
The Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Time : 11:20-12:00
Marek Chmielewski completed his PhD from the Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences and Post-doctoral studies from Purdue University and SIU Carbondale (USA). He has been the Director of the Institute of Organic Chemistry (2004–2010), and Vice-President of the Polish Academy of Sciences (2011–2014). He has published more than 250 papers in reputed journals.
The copper(I) mediated reaction of nitrones and terminal acetylenes, which is known as Kinugasa reaction, represents an attractive tool of direct formation of the β-lactam ring. The attractiveness of this reaction includes the use of readily available starting materials, high functional group tolerance, high atom economy, and relatively high stereochemical control of the reaction pathway. We present our studies on the application of Kinugasa reaction in synthesis of: carbapenems thienamycin, Fig 1a) and 4AA azetidinone, Fig 1b), monobactams carumonam, Fig. 1c), aztreonam, Fig 1d), and ezetimibe, a powerful cholesterol absorption inhibitor, Fig. 1e).
- Session -1
Human Vaccines - Infectious & Non Infectious Diseases | Vaccine Research & Development | Childhood Vaccines | Vaccination for pregnant women
Location: Hall - Linate
Frederic J Deschamps
University Hospital of Reims, France
Randa S Hamadeh, a graduate of the American University of Beirut (AUB), is the head of the Primary Health Care and Social Health department, and the manager of Immunization and Essential Drugs Program at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health. She is the coordinator of the Universal Health Coverage Project run jointly with the World Bank. She holds an MPH degree, a PhD in Public Health, and a Vaccinology Diploma. She contributed to creating a PHC network in Lebanon through which preventive programs and community health initiatives are initiated, usually involving local municipalities and NGOs. Dr. Hamadeh contributed to the introduction of the PHC facility accreditation program in Lebanon in 2008, and is the vice chair of the national accreditation committee. Dr. Hamadeh has actively participated in the foundation of various NGOs. She is the author of many public health papers and booklets. She is the preceptor of AUB Public Health students joining the PHC department for their residency programs since 2011. She contributes yearly as a lecturer and a panelist to International conferences in Public Health and Vaccines and she is an ADVAC(Advanced vaccinologist) member and an active participant in SAGE(Strategic Advisory Group of Experts) Global meetings. Dr. Hamadeh contributed to the partnership created among the ministry of Health and the Academia. She is a member of various National vaccines and Public Health technical committees. She participated in her capacity as a Primary Healthcare expert and a lecturer in the 36th anniversary of ALMA ATA Declaration in 2012. Dr. Hamadeh was elected for a Public Health Excellence Award, Delta Omega, Honorary Society of Public Health from the American University of Beirut in June 2017. She was nominated for the UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award in 2014 and was also nominated for Randa Bdeir Leadership Award at AUB for 2017. She was recently nominated to be the “Ambassador of Health in the Arab Countries” by the Arab League and the Arab Hospital Federation.
On 8 June 2017, World Health Organization announced an outbreak of polio in the Syrian Arab Republic. As at 16 January 2018, 74 cases have been confirmed as part of the outbreak. The median age of those infected is 15 months. This is the second outbreak of poliovirus to hit Syria since the onset of its humanitarian crisis in 2011. Unlike the first wild poliovirus outbreak in 2013, the current outbreak is a result of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type-2 (cVDPV2). Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus can occur in rare instances when population immunity against polio is very low. In these settings, the weakened virus found in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) can spread between under-immunized individuals and over time, mutate into a virulent form that can cause paralysis. The only way to stop transmission of vaccine-delivered poliovirus is an immediate immunization response, the same as with any outbreak of wild polio. With high levels of population immunity, the virus will no longer be able to survive and the outbreak will come to close. Since confirmation of the cVDPV2 outbreak, there has been a concerted effort by outbreak response partners in conjunction with the Government of Syria and local authorities to stop transmission. WHO and UNICEF have jointly undertaken two mass vaccination rounds in affected areas. Both rounds were completed with more than 395,000 children vaccinated. In addition, targeted vaccination activities have also taken place in high risk areas of the country. The second phase of the outbreak response is currently underway. To facilitate the response, social mobilization teams have deployed to visit community leaders, pediatricians, local council workers and camp managers, and are conducting house-to-house visits to raise community awareness of the need for vaccination. Activities to strengthen surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) – a major indicator for polio – are ongoing across the country. Contact sampling from all AFP cases continues and stool samples are being taken from healthy children arriving from known infected areas as well as form silent districts (districts that have not reported AFP cases in 2017). This situation urged neighboring countries to take immediate action. Lebanon is one of those countries most affected by the Syrian crisis due to geographical and cultural aspects that link the two countries. Lebanon, and since the onset of the Syrian crisis, has received more than 2M displaced and the displacement movement is ongoing even at a lower rate, the thing that necessitated the initiation of vaccination points at border line areas and at UNHCR registration centers in addition to ongoing national campaigns targeting 0-5 children regardless of nationality and of previous doses to maintain Lebanon polio free. Those activities became more focused nowadays targeting low coverage areas or areas of high density population where displaced has settled especially after April 2017 where bOPV was globally introduced to replace tOPV. To close, Polio is an international threat, one case of polio anywhere is polio everywhere. International communities should take immediate action toward securing more funds to guarantee vaccines availability and to channel more support to the health sector in general.
Public Health England, UK
Title: Perspectives of vaccinators on the factors affecting uptake of MenACWY vaccine amongst school leavers in London
Time : 12:25-12:50
Catherine Heffernan is Principal Advisor for Commissioning Immunization and Vaccination Services at NHS England, London Region, England. She is a Consultant in Public Health and has spent the past five years as the London Regional Lead for Immunizations at Public Health England, advising NHS England, London Region on commissioning section 7a immunization programme. She is also an accredited educational supervisor for public health registrars and GP trainees and is an honorary senior clinical lecturer at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Statement of the Problem: Uptake of MenACWY amongst school leavers (18 years old) is suboptimal in London (9.9% compared to 17.4% nationally in 2015/16). There are studies looking at acceptability of MenACWY amongst adolescents (mostly younger adolescents as they receive the vaccination in schools) but very few studies look at how vaccination service provision may affect uptake of adolescent vaccination. This study identifies service delivery barriers and elicits insights from general practice staff on their interaction with this cohort. The purpose was to inform the NHSE (London) public health commissioning team’s strategy to improve MenACWY vaccination uptake in London.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Qualitative semi-structured interviews study. Purposive sampling of practice nurses from three general practices from each of the three London clinical commissioning group areas (Barnet, Camden and Newham) with the largest numbers of 18-20 year old registered patients. Participants were recruited through their practice managers. A thematic analysis approach was used.
Findings: A total of ten interviews were conducted between June and August 2017. Five themes were identified: nurses unsupported by practice systems; difficulty getting school leavers into the practice; confused messaging; reliance on parental responsibility for health and; perception of complacency amongst adolescents.
Conclusion & Significance: Little is known about the service factors that impede uptake of adolescent vaccinations. This study shows that existing programmatic mechanisms for delivering the MenACWY catch-up programme were not adequate. The number of adolescent vaccinations offered has increased in the UK in the last five years and is likely to continue. General practice staff needs more systematic guidance on their role and how they can support vaccine decision-making in later adolescence.
Carmen Alvarez Dominguez has completed her PhD in Immunology, 1993 and has her expertise in listeriosis and Listeria based vaccines and nanovaccines for biomedical purposes. Her group has prepared different vaccines for listeriosis, either systemic listeriosis or neonatal listeriosis, using different vectors such as dendritic cells or nanoparticles. Moreover, they have also prepared Listeria-based nanovaccines as therapeutic tools for solid tumours. She has built this vaccine expertise after more than 27 years of experience in research, evaluation and teaching in hospital, basic research and academic institutions in Spain and USA. She is also moving recently to consultancy companies to put new vaccines into the market.
Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM) specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013–2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios. Therefore, we developed a nanovaccine with gold glyco-nanoparticles conjugated to short LM peptides and formulated with a pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2/4-targeted adjuvant. The neonates born to nanovaccinated pregnant mice’s with listeriosis, showed brain and vascular disease and significant microglial dysfunction by induction of TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. This programmed TNF-mediated suicide explains LM dissemination in brains and livers and blocks production of early pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and interferon-α/β. In contrast, neonates born to nanovaccinated mothers before LM infection, did not develop listeriosis or brain diseases and had functional microglia. In nanovaccinated mothers, immune responses shifted towards Th1/IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles and high production of anti-LM antibodies, suggesting good induction of LM-specific memory.
Maulana Azad Medical College, India
Title: Implications of IPV introduction in national immunization schedule and strategies to combat shortages
Time : 14:05-14:30
Pragya Sharma has completed her MD in Public Health from Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, India. After completing her education, she has served in Central Health Services, Government of India as Public Health Specialist heading the Reproductive and Child Health Programme for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India for a period of three years. She is Professor in Community Medicine in Maulana Azad Medical College, a premier medical academic organization in the country. She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer member of repute.
With the upcoming globally synchronized switch from t OPV to b OPV for commitment of countries to be free from t OPV, 156 countries have pledged to stop using the same and replace it either with b OPV and IPV combination or only IPV. Thus there is humongous demand of IPV against the production capacity of the vaccine across the globe. There is an urgent need to explore various strategies to combat the forthcoming crisis in the given demand supply shortage and also in the post eradication era. Also it is important to consider the cost effective strategies for the middle and low income countries for sustainability once IPV has been included in the programme.
Title: Investigations into the reduced effectiveness of the H1N1pdm09 component of the live attenuated influenza vaccine
Time : 14:30-14:55
Helen Bright is an Immunologist with over 20 years’ experience in the biopharmaceutical industry. She has a degree in Microbiology from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne and a PhD in RSV Vaccine Research. She is currently a Principal Scientist at Medimmune, responsible for the research, selection and development of vaccine strains for the seasonal and pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccine. Previously, she successfully led anti-viral, immune modulation and vaccine discovery projects at GSK and Pfizer. She has been a Reviewer for the MRC Infection and Immunity Board and a Journal Referee.
Decreased effectiveness of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains (A/California/7/2009 and A/Bolivia/559/2013) included in live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) have been observed in recent years. Multiple hypotheses have been suggested as potential explanations for this reduced effectiveness compared with inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV). The most frequently cited hypotheses include poor replicative fitness of the A(H1N1)pdm09 LAIV strains, vaccine–virus interference in the quadrivalent formulation, reduced LAIV replication due to preexisting anti-influenza immunity from prior influenza vaccinations, and poor thermostability of A(H1N1)pdm09 LAIV strains. We have systematically evaluated each of these hypotheses and initiated a multifaceted scientific investigation in to the causes of the recently observed reduced effectiveness of LAIV. Laboratory studies show that A/ California and A/Bolivia strains have reduced replication in a human alveolar cell line, primary human nasal epithelium air-liquid cultures. Data suggests that the underlying mechanism for this is likely to be multi-factorial. For example, the pdm09H1N1 LAIV strains have reduced binding to α2,6-linked sialic acid receptors (the primary receptor for influenza viruses in the human upper respiratory tract) and increased neuraminidase activity. Finally, ferret studies confirm that LAIV which replicate well in tissue culture are more effective in protecting from wild type influenza virus challenge.
- Session - 2
Antibiotics | Antibiotic Resistance: Opportunities and Challenges | Drug Discovery and Novel Delivery Technologies | Antibiotics for Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases | Antibiotics and Mechanism of Action
Location: Hall - Linate
Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, Norway
Time : 14:55-15:20
Klara Stensvåg completed her PhD and Postdoctoral studies at Arctic University of Norway (UiT). She is a Professor in Marine Biotechnology at The Norwegian College of Fishery Science at UiT. She has published more than 44 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member for reputed journals. She is the Head of the research group in Marine Bioprospecting. Her research concerns antimicrobial compounds and genes of marine origin as source of developing novel antibacterial compounds with new mechanisms of actions against antimicrobial resistant bacteria.
Nature is still a probable source of novel antibiotics since almost 70% of the drugs approved today are based on knowledge from natural sources. Since few new commercial antibiotics are approved during the last decades, the rather little studied marine environment and molecules thereof, are regarded as very interesting because of the close connection, often in symbiotic relationship, between different organisms and microorganisms to each other. Marine resources like invertebrates, microalgae, plants, marine bacteria and fungi together with biological rest raw material, are thus promising for exploring novel antimicrobials with unique antibacterial strategies and anti-biofilm properties. In this context, both marine proteins/peptides and secondary metabolites are interesting because of their bioactivities against antibiotic resistant human pathogenic bacteria in the first place which also can define novel targets in pathogenic bacteria. Secondly, their structural motives/pharmacophores might be usable to design novel synthetic marine natural products mimics with promising antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. We have characterized several new classes of marine AMPs and explored their mode of action by different tests. The organisms that produce these bioactives are collected from the Arctic or/and sub-Arctic region and can be very diverse covering biological resources from microalgae to invertebrates. This talk will cover different approaches in bioprospecting that include characterization of mechanisms of actions, SAR studies and give examples of designed new marine mimicking molecules as candidates of novel lead compounds of antimicrobials and anti-biofilm active compounds. The talk will also refer to the recently established Centre for new Antibacterial Strategies (CANS) at UiT.
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Title: Functional genomics and transcriptomics of virulent and multidrug resistant Escherichia coli of poultry origin
Time : 14:55-15:20
Haihong Hao has completed his PhD from Huazhong Agricultural University and he is a Visiting Scientist from Iowa State University (2008-2009) and NCTR USFDA (2015- 2017). He is an Associate Professor of College of Veterinary Medicine at Huazhong Agricultural University. He has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals.
The pathogenic and multidrug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli in poultry products may pose high risk to food safety. The MDR E. coli were selected by antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL) were determined by antibiotics impregnated disks and double disk synergy test. The virulent characteristics, including the biofilm formation, the adhesion, invasion and survivability in Caco-2 and Raw 264.7, the median lethal dose (LD50) in two-day old chickens, were determined via in vitro and in vivo tests. The genes involved in MDR, ESBL and virulence were amplified by PCR. Six MDR E. coli isolates with higher virulence (27, 112, 130, 351, 357 and 381) were selected for next generation sequencing. The multidrug resistance genes (mdtE, F, G, and K) and genes encoding resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, fluoroquinolones and tetracycline were found in one MDR E.coli. The E.coli 381 with higher virulence in cell culture and 1000-fold more virulence in a chicken model than other strains. The Illumina HiSeq2500 transcriptome analysis found that multiple pathways involved in the resistance (e.g mdt for multidrug resistance, mate for efflux family, ompE for outer member, fsr for fosmidomycin resistance and ABC Transporters) and virulence (e.g inv for invasion, BssR and bdm for biofilm formation, NlpD for lipoprotein and ycr for two component systems) were up-regulated in E. coli 381. The results provided critical information about the highly virulent MDR E. coli strain of poultry origin, which can further be used for the development of prevention strategies and treatment procedures.
Iskakova Zhanar Baktybaevna is a candidate of chemical sciences, Associate Professor. She is the Head of the Department of Science and Post-Graduate Education and; Scientific Secretary of the Kazakh University of Technology and Business. She has about 100 scientific publications, the author of one patent, three teaching aids, one electronic textbook and a monograph. She is a Laureate in the nomination Springer Nature top of the most published scientists of Kazakhstan in the field of Biological Sciences and Biomedicine. She is engaged in determining the biological activity of essential oils extracted from plants, extracts and substances in the Institute of Applied Chemistry.
The specialists in the Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University and Nazarbayev University were engaged in the research and study of new antibiotics to increase the activity of producers of known antibiotics. Thus, a broad-spectrum antifungal polyene antibiotic, roseofungin was prepared for the treatment of deep and superficial mycoses. Physicochemical properties of roseofungin are investigated by L Vetlugina and R Dziubanova. Roseofungin is a mixture of two compounds differing only in one CH2-group. Due to the difficulty of separation and very similar properties, these compounds were not divided in a pure form; therefore a specific formula for roseofungin has not yet been established. The culture liquid of roseofungin used for research was represented by specialists of the National Centre of Biotechnology (Stepnogorsk, Kazakhstan). The determination of antiradical, cytotoxic activity is necessary to establish the presence of potential biological activity in pentaenoic antibiotics, which will allow them to be used as medicines in the future. The cytotoxic activity of the roseofungin was determined by the compressibility of Artemia salina. On the basis of the experiments, it was found that the roseofungin at concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/ml exhibits moderate toxicity - the mortality of larvae is 72%, and at a concentration of 1 mg/ml exhibits low toxicity, mortality - 48%. The antiradical activity of the roseofungin is determined by the reactions of the inhibition of 2, 2-diphyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH assay). The results showed that the roseofungin has a low antiradical activity in comparison with the standard butylhydroxyanisole.
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Time : 16:30-16:55
Yuguang Mu has more than 20 years of experience in the area of Computational Biophysics. His main researches focuses on research fields, MD simulation method and data analysis method development, DNA dynamics, DNA protein, DNA-counterions interaction study, peptide, protein folding, unfolding study, especially aimed at folding, misfolding mechanism which could lead to amyloid fibril, RNA dynamics and folding study.
Teixobactin (TXB) is a newly discovered antibiotic, targeting the bacterial cell wall precursor Lipid II (LII). In the present work, four binding modes of TXB on LII were identified by a contact-map based clustering method. The highly flexible binary complex ensemble was generated by parallel tempering metadynamics simulation in a well-tempered manner (PTMetaD-WTE). In agreement with experimental findings, the pyrophosphate group and the attached first sugar subunit of LII are found to be the minimal motif for stable TXB binding. Three of the four binding modes involve the ring structure of TXB and have relatively higher binding affinities, indicating the importance of the ring motif of TXB in LII recognition. TXB-LII complexes with a ratio of 2:1 are also predicted with configurations such that the ring motif of two TXB molecules bound to the pyrophosphate-MurNAc moiety and the glutamic acid residue of one LII, respectively. Our findings disclose that the ring motif of TXB is critical to LII binding and novel antibiotics can be designed based on its mimetics.
Social Security Hospital, Iran
Title: Imipenem and meropenem Drug Utilization Evaluation (DUE) in the social security hospital in Khorramabad
Time : 16:55-17:20
Amin Noori completed his Graduation in Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm D) in 2014. During his study in University he has worked in different research fields including Laboratory research, e-learning. He is still doing research on Clinical Trials, Bioinformatics, Chemonformatic and DUE. He is working in Social Security Hospital as Hospital Pharmacist in (Iranian Social Security Organization) since May 2016.
Background: Drug utilization assessment is the marketing, distribution, prescription and use of drugs in society with special importance on the resulting medical, social and economic costs (WHO). The purpose of DUR is to ensure drugs are used appropriately, safely and effectively to improve patient health. Carbapenems possess the broadest spectrum of activity and the greatest potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several recent studies clearly show that resistance to carbapenems is increasing throughout the world.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed during three periods: the summer and fall of 2016, spring and summer 2017, and fall and winter 2017. Imipenem and meropenem DUE were done in a hospital in Iran. All of the patients receiving imipenem and meropenem were enrolled in this study. AHFS drug protocols have been used to perform this study.
Results: The results of this study showed that the monitoring and evaluation of the drugs, imipenem and meropenem, reduced the expenditure, consumption and duration of drug intake during the three periods. The correct use of the drug was improved. During the 3rd period, the correct indication rose to 79% for imipenem and 76% for meropenem, but the correct dosages were only imipenem 24% and meropenem 32%. During the periods studied, empirical prescription decreased to imipenem, 58% and meropenem 64%.
Conclusion: Imipenem and meropenem are mostly administered empirically, rather than using an antibiogram. Although a lower empirical therapy would be desirable, the study improved the correct indication to 79%, and a reduction of the consumption period to 7.3.