Day 2 :
- The Emergence of Antimicrobial Resistance | Antibiotics and Mechanism of Action | Drug Discovery and Novel Delivery Technologies | Antibiotic Prophylaxis | Antibiotic Resistance: Opportunities and Challenges | Antibiotics: In Pregnancy and Lactation | Advances in Infectious Antibiotics
Location: Meeting Hall: Wright
Gerald C. Hsu
Eclaire MD Foundation, USA
Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Title: Long-term application of farmyard manure to arable soils does not, in itself, promote the spread of antibiotic resistance genes
Time : 10:00-10:30
Yuan Liu is mainly engaged in the research of rhizospheric electrochemistry and chemical behavior of nutrients and pollutants such as heavy metals, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes during farmland irrigation with unconventional water resources such as livestock wastewater and reclaimed water.
Misuse of antibiotics has exacerbated the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in microbes in the environment, promulgating calls for nations to adopt mitigation strategies. Farmyard manure (FYM) has a long history in soil fertility management which is being re-evaluated because of a combination of rising mineral fertilizer costs, concerns for sustainable soil management and ecological stability. However, FYM may act as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant organisms: the effect of long-term application of FYM on ARGs in soil needs to be established. We studied ARGs in arable soil treated for 175-years with FYM or chemical fertilizer (CF) and native woodland (W). Metagenomic analysis showed that the abundance of fox5, blaCTX-M-4, vgb, tetG, sul1, vanA and floR genes were significantly lower in FYM than W, and the abundance of fox5, vgb and tetX genes in FYM were also significantly lower than CF. The phylogenetic diversity of individual ARGs was also typically lower in FYM than either CF and W. Despite this, there were no significant differences in the abundance of integrase genes (intI1 and intI2). There were also no significant differences in the abundance of metal resistance genes, except merB associated with Hg-resistance, which was more abundant and had an increased phylogenetic diversity in FYM soils. Overall, FYM did not increase the abundance and diversity of ARGs significantly and there was only limited association between ARGs and metal resistance genes in the soils.
Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Title: The impact of alternate-furrow irrigation with livestock wastewater on antibiotic resistance gene abundance in soil
Time : 10:30-11:00
Professor Zhongyang Li is mainly engaged in the research on agricultural safety utilization of livestock wastewater and reclaimed water and the amelioration technology of soil polluted with heavy metals, antibiotics in farmland.
One effective approach to treating large amounts of wastewater produced during livestock production is to use it to irrigate crops. However, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) associated with wastewater may enter the soil and plants. ARGs are spread readily among microbial populations by mobile genetic elements, and may pose threats to human health. Compared with conventional furrow irrigation (CFI), alternate-furrow irrigation (AFI) can reduce water use and still achieve high yields. These different irrigation methods may influence the fate of ARGs in soil, but few reports have studied the combined effects of AFI and livestock wastewater upon the distribution of ARGs in soil. Here, swine wastewater was used to irrigate cultivated peppers, and compared to relatively ARG-free groundwater. AFI was compared to CFI (100%) at three AFI irrigation rates (80%, 65% and 50% of CFI). The results showed that wastewater irrigation resulted in greater accumulation of antibiotics and ARGs in soil than groundwater irrigation. The effect of wastewater was much more pronounced in rhizosphere than in the bulk soils. Compared with CFI, AFI using wastewater reduced the relative abundance of ARGs in rhizosphere, but the concentration of antibiotics was largely unaffected; though antibiotic concentrations in roots were significantly lower, the abundance of ARGs in roots at 50% and 65% rates and in fruits at 50% rate were significantly increased when using wastewater. The soil bacterial communities did not change significantly between the different irrigation rates, but different behaviours were observed between ARGs and antibiotics at different irrigation rates. Antibiotic availability plays an important role in the diffusion of ARGs. In conclusion, AFI with livestock wastewater can reduce the relative abundance of ARGs in rhizosphere, but reducing irrigation amount should be employed carefully for the safe agricultural production.
Carmen Mannucci is a Post-doc in Pharmacology at the Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy. His area of expertise are: Pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacology and toxicology of herbal medicine, food supplements and nutraceuticals.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as a commonbacterial infection that can lead to significant morbidity such as stricture, fistula, abscess formation, bacteraemia, sepsis, pyelonephritis and kidney dysfunction with a reported mortality rates of 1% in men and 3% in women because of development of pyelonephritis. UTIs are more common in women and the 33% of them requires antimicrobials treatment for at least 1 episode by the age of 24 years. UTIs are the most common infections observed during pregnancy and up to 30% of mothers with not treated asymptomatic bacteriuria may develop acute pyelonephritis which consequently can be associated to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated with antimicrobial treatments being safe for both the mother and the fetus. Approximately one every four women receives prescription of antibiotic treatment during pregnancy. Use of fosfomycin to treat cystitis in pregnancy is generally considered safe and for the fetus and mothers, even thought this opinion is not based on specific studies monitoring the relationship of between urinary infections, consumption of antibiotics and pregnancy outcomes. On this basis we analyzed data from the database of a multicenter study PHYTOVIGGEST, reporting data from 5362 pregnancies, focusing on use of fosfomycin. Principal outcomes of pregnancy in women treated with fosfomycin were taken in consideration. Women who have been treated with urinary antibiotics during the pregnancy were 187 (3.49%). Analysis of different outcomes of pregnancy such as gestational age, neonatal weight and neonatal Apgar index did not show any significant difference. At the same time analysis of data of pregnancy complicancies (such as, urgent cesarean delivery, use of general anesthesia, need to induce labour) did not show any difference in women taking fosfomycin during pregnancy and those not taking it. Our data, confirm the safety use of fosfomycin use in pregnancy.
Lee JH, Lee YM, Cho JH. Risk factors of septic shock in bacteremic acute pyelonephritis patients admitted to an ER. J Infect Chemother 2012;18:130-3.
- Kumar S, Dave A, Wolf B, Lerma EV. Urinary tract infections. Dis Mon. 2015; 61(2):45-59.
- Foxman B. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Dis Mon, 2003; 49(2):53–70.
- Foxman, B. The epidemiology of urinary tract infection. Nat. Rev. Urol. 2010;7:653–660.
- Heikkila AM. Antibiotics in pregnancy–a prospective cohort study on the policy of antibiotic prescription. Ann Med 1993; 5:467–71.
- Smaill FM, Vazquez JC. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Aug 7; 8:CD000490. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000490.pub3
G2 Medical Laboratory, Ghana
Time : 11:50-12:20
Gershon Yao Sena Sekley is the Chief Executive Officer of G2 Medical Laboratory, a leading referral laboratory for most clinics and hospitals in Ghana. He helped establish G2 Medical Labs in 1997 with the sole vision of providing quality and accurate diagnosis service for both clients and healthcare professionals. Before then, he worked as a medical laboratory scientist and a senior supervisor in various establishments including The Trust Hospital (1990-1992), Swan Clinic (1992- 1997) and, Mendel Medical Laboratory (1993-1997). During this period, Gershon has contributed to different research studies that involved Sickle cell disease, Prostate Disorder in adults, Sexually Transmitted Infections and Renal Disorders in Diabetic patients. Besides analyzing clinical specimen in the laboratory, he is into health advocacy using the electronic media e.g. radio, television as a platform to educate the nation on topics like, Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Cervical Cancer etc and also educate corporate organizations and churches on healthy life style and if you do not find him in the laboratory working hard to find solutions to serve patients and physicians, he will be found in the Library reading, teaching colleagues and students. Currently he is involved with research and findings in various disciplines in the field of medicine and academia. He would be seen spending time with his family during his leisure time.
Background: Wound infection is a major global health problem because it poses serious complications that result in difficulty in treatment and wounds bacterial contamination are common hospital acquired infections causing more than 80% of mortality. The aim of this study was to identify common bacteria infecting five different types of wounds and their resistance to commonly used antibiotics.
Methodology: Clinical swabs were received from hospitals and/ or clinics and some were obtained directly from patients visiting the G2 Medical Laboratory from 2015 to 2018. Specimens were obtained from wounds including Buruli ulcer, lupus, surgical, diabetes and burns. Conversional method of culturing on CLED, BLOOD AND CHOCLATE AGAR, incubated in an aerobic and anaerobic condition between 18 and 24 hours at 37°C. The microbial were identified through the gram staining and various biochemical reactions. Antibiotics sensitivity test was done for both gram negative and positive microbial.
Results: A total of 10629 specimen were analyzed and different types of bacteria were isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most predominant pathogen isolated from all wound type infection: Buruli ulcer =3493 (32.9%); lupus =2180 (20.5%); surgical =2911 (27.4%); diabetes =1503 (14.1%); and burn =609 (5.7%). A total of microbial resistance n=9657. P. aeruginosa showed the highest rate of resistance to the tested antibiotics of n=5396 (55.9%): Gentamicin=963 (17.8%); amikacin=960 (17.8%); cefotaxime=813 (15.1%), ceftriaxone=850 (15.8%); ciprofloxacin=947 (17.6%) and levofloxacin=863 (16.0%) and other multidrug resistance strains identified were Enterobacter spp., n=2105 (21.8%); S. aureus, n=974 (10.1%); Klebsiella spp., n=571 (5.9%); Proteus spp., n=356 (3.7%) and E. coli, n=255 (2.6%).
Conclusion: Among other pathogens, we found P. aeruginosa to be the predominant bacteria in all wound infections and also shows the highest resistance to all tested antibiotics. A fugal elements (Aspergillius there was also isolated but no susceptibility testing was done). This study indicates that wound infections are typically polymicrobial comprising both Gram negative and positive bacterial with increased multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics for treatment.
Extended Networking & Lunch 13:00-14:00 @ RBG