Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 40th Euro Global Summit and Expo on Vaccines & Vaccination Madrid, Spain.

Day 1 :

  • Vaccines safety & Efficacy | COVID-19 Vaccine Research & Development

Session Introduction

Maryam Mahdikhani

College of Charleston, USA

Title: Publics opinion about Covid-19 and vaccination on twitter platform

Maryam Mahdikhani has her expertise in Machine Learning, Text mining, and supply chain management. She got her PhD from Rutgers University, the state University of New Jersey in USA in the field of supply Chain Management.



The study is motivated by the tweets on Covid-19 in Twitter platform from March 2019.  More than 1 million tweets related to Covid-19 pandemic that were written in English were analyzed across the development of pandemic and the vaccination phase.  In this study, we aimed to evaluate public opinion on vaccination and their general emotions toward the new normal by analyzing the tweet’s content. We applied non-supervised machine learning algorithm to identify the most important topics related to vaccination on Covid-19.  The features related  to the documents then extracted  and used to evaluate and classified the main features to predict the public opinion on vaccinations.



Karolina Kiełbik, PhD student at the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. She graduated from pharmacy in 2016 in Lublin, works as a hospital pharmacist. Over 4 years of doctoral research focuses on the pneumococcal carriage in young children in Poland.



Poland was one of the last countries in Europe to introduce in 2017 free-of charge, mandatory vaccinations against invasive pneumococcal disease. The aim of the study was to determine how pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) affected colonization of nasopharyngeal microbiota in healthy children aged 1-6 years who were vaccinated with PCVs in comparison to non-vaccinated children.

DNAs from nasopharyngeal samples were extracted using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit according to the manufacturer's instructions and analyzed with the Custom Microbial DNA qPCR Array (Qiagen, USA).

In molecular analysis with real-time PCR, from the 176 patients studied, 643 species/genes of 21 various microbial species tested were retrieved. In one sample 0-14 (mean 3.65±2.96) species/genes were detected. Of 145 (82.4%) children were positive for at least one of the tested microorganisms. The prevalence of URTI pathogens in children, namely S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae, M.catarrhalis and S.aureus was 30.1%, 9.1%, 0.6% and 18.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed the differences in prevalence of Kocuria kristine (p=0.0046), S.sanguinis (p=0.028) and H.parainfluenzae (p=0.048) which were significantly more frequently present in vaccinated group, whereas S.aureus (p=0.0062) was significantly associated with unvaccinated group. The relative abundance of bacterial species was found to be similar between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups for the majority of species. Significantly different relative abundance in both groups confirmed positive association K.kristinae (p=0.0063) and S.sanguinis (p=0.016) with vaccinated group and negative association of S.aureus (p=0.0088) with this group. The ΔΔCT method was used for the relative profiling and comparison between two populations from vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Microbial DNA qPCR Array correlated increased amounts of Streptococcus mitis and S.sanguinis, with reduced amounts of C.pseudodiphtericum, S.aureus and M.catarrhalis.  In conclusion, pneumococcal vaccination promote decreasing of amount of pathogenic bacteria and also induces commensal bacteria colonization without substantially changing the nasopharyngeal microbiota.


Hector Magno

UC San Diego School of Medicine, USA

Title: Measuring the benefits of mass vaccination programs

Hector Magno is a researcher, data analyst, and software developer. He attended UC Berkeley as a Regent and Chancellor’s Scholar and earned a degree in Computer Science. He also attended UC Berkeley as a National Science Foundation fellow, earned a graduate degree in Computer Science, and received the National Science Foundation Award in Mathematics.




Since the late 1940s, mass vaccination programs in the USA have contributed to the significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases. To assist the evaluation of the benefits of mass vaccination programs, the number of individuals who would have surged death or permanent disability in the USA, had mass vaccination never been implemented, was estimated for several infectious diseases.

Materials & Methods:

The estimates accounted for mortality and morbidity trends observed for the infections prior to mass vaccination, adjustments of pre-vaccine estimates using data recorded after vaccine licensure, and the impact of advances in standard of living and health care (such as improved nutrition, sanitation, hygiene, and the treatment of disease). The estimates also considered populations with and without known factors leading to an elevated risk of permanent injury from infection. The estimates are based on data principally from reports of the CDC, complemented by reports from other federal entities such as the US Bureau of the Census and the US Public Health Service. Data recorded in scientific journals (e.g., JAMA, Pediatrics, JID, NEJM, and JCO) were used in cases when data from government sources were unavailable or incomplete.  The estimates focused on the population <80 years of age because the life expectancy in the USA was 79 years.


Mass vaccination programs may prevent 20 million infections and 12,000 deaths and permanent disabilities annually among individuals <80 years of age. Individuals who have conditions or behaviors that would put them at higher risk of permanent injury from infectious diseases comprise 90% of all the estimated cases of prevented death and permanent disability. Although 9,000 of the estimated prevented deaths and disabilities were from liver cirrhosis and cancer, mass vaccination programs have not, at this point, shown empirical impacts on the prevalence of those conditions. The table below summarizes the results for the infections examined in this report. Mass vaccination programs targeting rotavirus, hepatitis A, influenza, meningococcal disease, and pneumococcal disease were each estimated to prevent fewer than 100 deaths among individuals <80 years of age.

“High risk” refers to individuals with specified factors linked to an elevated risk of permanent injury from the infection. “Normal risk” refers to individuals without those specific known factors and also refers to individuals with risk factors that were not identified or were excluded in our analysis.


Over 40 years experiences in public health and infection disease epidemic control. Lead a team (EMO Biology Inc.) of scientists conducted the COVID-19 related studies including immunology, virology, epidemiology, serological and clinical providing understanding of root cause of global pandemic and control methods since 2020 up to now. Prior to 1991, Former officer of national immunization program of China, WHO’s Fellow, CDC infectious diseases control specialists and epidemiologist. Multiple National, Academical rewards from the contribution to the clinical and epidemiological study lead to the research of typhoid infectious and discovered the new wildlife carrier of such disease-causing specific population infectious in a local outbreak and disease put off in 1985. Lead national EPI program with setting up computerized disease reporting system for children’s infectious diseases control through immunization (1989). Lead the clinical serological, and epidemiological studies resulted in national policy adaptation for senior booster immunization of tetanus in 1996 USA.



Background: Molecular evidence has shown poliovirus vaccination induces an adaptive humoral immune response. In vitro experiments of polio-immune sera have been examined retrospectively in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, but the induced antibodies that may cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 have yet to be analyzed in a controlled and prospective manner.

Objective: To evaluate and characterize the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 elicited in adults by IPV (inactivated poliovirus vaccine).

Design: Single arm, open-label, pre-post vaccine immunogenicity trial

Setting: San Diego, CA (USA), November 2020 on going.

Participants: Adults between the ages of 18-80 with no active infectious disease, history of COVID-19, or prior COVID-19 vaccination.

Interventions: All participants received IPV (IPOL, Sanofi Pasteur) by intramuscular injection.

Measurements: Blood specimens collected at  baseline (pre-inoculation) and 28 ± 3 days post-inoculation were tested for polio antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Viral replication via RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzymatic activity was measured to the polio-immunized sera.

Results: A total of 298 of the 300 enrolled participants completed both on-site visits.

Comparing the baseline (Day 1) and Day 28 measurements, 261 of the 298 paired samples (87.6%) demonstrated a positive increase in antibody titers, 30 (10.1%) decreased, and 7 (2.3%) had no change. Samples that demonstrated no change or a decrease in titers from pre- to post-inoculation had high titer levels at baseline. Of the 298 polio-immune serum samples, 47 were randomly selected for RdRp enzymatic activity testing, and all samples (100%) demonstrated inhibition of RdRp function, inhibition of SARS-CoV-2-induced Cytopathic effects (CPE) in Vero cell culture, and a clear demonstration that IPV immunization raises antibodies that recognize the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (RdRp) proteins of both poliovirus and SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, our retrospective study demonstrated adults re-immunized with IPV exhibited similar antibody responses to both poliovirus and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, compared to children who received IPV as part of their childhood vaccinations. Across all ages, poliovirus vaccination produces antibodies that inhibit RdRp function, thereby preventing viral replication that may cause disease progression in infected individuals. The study results provide robust data that poliovirus vaccines can generate strong adaptive immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, providing protection from infection. Serologically, we found poliovirus vaccination significantly increases antibody titers (p<0.0001). Clinically, only 1.67% of the studied population reported testing positive for COVID-19, which can be compared to the local infection rate among the general population at that time, 8.83% (p<0.0001, z=4.677 [95% CI (0.54, 3.85)]). Those who did test positive for COVID-19 only experienced mild symptoms for 1-3 days, if at all. Moreover, no one in the clinical trial was hospitalized (0%) or died (0%) due to COVID-19, which may be compared to the rates in the local population, with 5.5% of the general public being hospitalized and 1.3% dying from COVID-19 (p<0.0001, z=6.21; p<0.01, z=2.73, respectively).

Limitations: Participants were not routinely tested for COVID-19, though known exposures were reported, and COVID-19 PCR results were documented.

Conclusion: A single dose of IPV induces a significant increase in antibody titers, which can cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. This prospective clinical trial confirms findings from retrospective studies that polio-immune sera demonstrate inhibition of viral replication and IPV can affect SARS-CoV-2 RdRp reactivity.

Registration: NCT04639375.